Grignards are the classic organometallic reagent; easy to prepare, highly reactive, and very useful for making C-C bonds directly and straightfowardly. Chlorine, although not as reactive, can also be used to make Grignard reagents. They love to mingle with alkyl groups and get the party started to make a Grignard reagent. The general formula of Grigard-reagents is R-Mg-X, when R is an organic radical and X is a halogen, usually Br. The reactions between the various sorts of carbonyl compounds and Grignard reagents can look quite complicated, but in fact they all react in the same way - all that changes are the groups attached to the carbon-oxygen double bond. But don't rule out chlorine! Grignard reagents commonly are prepared by reaction of an organohalogen with magnesium in a nitrogen atmosphere because the reagent is very reactive toward oxygen and moisture. E.g. REACTIONS OF GRIGNARD REAGENTS * The Grignard reagents are highly basic and can react with protic compounds like water, acids, alcohols, 1-alkynes etc., by giving corresponding alkanes. In an aprotic, anhydrous donor solvent, an hydrocarbyl halide may be metallated directly with magnesium turnings: R-X+MgrarrR-MgX R-MgX, the Grignard reagent, is usually used directly See this old answer for tips on preparation. Organohalogens vary greatly in their rates of reaction with magnesium. Alkyllithiums can give Grignard reagents when treated with magnesium salts. C6H5-Mg-Br can be prepared from C6H5Br and metallic Magnesium. For example, alkyl iodides generally react very rapidly, whereas most aryl chlorides react very slowly, if at all. * Grignard reagents can also be prepared by transmetallation. The general reaction between Grignard reagents and carbonyl compounds.

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